Wick Broomall, Jr. was born on this day, January 31, 1902 to parents Wick Broomall, Sr. and his wife, Annie Nixon Broomall. Their son was educated at Maryville College, graduating in 1925 and then preparing for the ministry by attending Princeton Theological Seminary, from 1925-1929. Loraine Boettner was attending Princeton at that same time. Wick earned the Th.B. degree in 1928 while concurrently earning an M.A. from Princeton University, and he then earned the Th.M. degree in 1929. That was the year that was marked by the reorganization of Princeton Seminary, a change in the governance of the school which allowed modernists to take control and a change which drove conservatives like Robert Dick Wilson, J. Gresham Machen, O.T. Allis, and several other professors to resign in order to start Westminster Theological Seminary.
By August of 1929, Wick was ordained by Birmingham Presbytery and he briefly served as stated supply for the PCUS church in Montevallo, Alabama, 1929-30, before taking a post teaching at the Evangelical Theological College, 1930-32 (this school was renamed Dallas Theological Seminary in 1936). Returning to Birmingham, he pastored the Handley Memorial church, 1933-37 while also serving as the founding President Birmingham School of the Bible (now Southeastern Bible College).
Rev. Broomall also served churches in Georgia and South Carolina and taught at Columbia Bible College, 1938-51, before transferring his credentials into the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church and taught at Erskine Theological Seminary, 1952-58, then was received back into the PCUS and pastored the Westminster Presbyterian church in Augusta, Georgia, 1958-69. While serving as one of the founding faculty at the Atlanta School of Biblical Studies, 1971-75, he was also pastor of the PCUS church in Sparta, Georgia, 1972-75, and as one of the founding fathers of the PCA, led the Sparta church in becoming one of the founding churches of the new denomination.
The author of a number of books and articles, Rev. Broomall was also a founding member of the Evangelical Theological Society, well-known among their number. On February 5, 1976, he was called home to his Lord, at the age of 74.
Words to Live By: In 1938, an article by Rev. Broomall, on the subject of regeneration, appeared in The Evangelical Student. This would have been published just as he began his tenure at the Columbia Bible College, and may be among his first published works.
“Much is being said and written in our modern age about the fruits of Christianity. The so-called social gospel of bankrupt Modernism is nothing less than a vain attempt to get the fruits of Christianity without the one essential root that alone can produce the desired fruits. The root that we are referring to is what the Bible calls the new birth or regeneration. The sterility and barrenness of present-day Modernism is to be found in the fact that Modernists have largely denied that man as he is needs a radical change in his nature. They have said so many nice things about our sinful Adamic nature, and have dressed it up with so many refinements and cultural embellishments, that they have completely covered up the facct that man’s nature is essentially evil and is absolutely incapable of producing the desired fruits. One does not need to hear or read many sermons in order to be convinced that the doctrine of regeneration as taught in the Word of God is both denied and ignored today.”
[excerpted from “The Christian Doctrine of Regeneration,” The Evangelical Student, 13.1 (Jan. 1938) 15-19.]
This day, January 30, marks the birth of Francis August Schaeffer, in 1912.
Dr. Francis A. Schaeffer’s early ministry is not all that well known. He began his studies at Westminster Theological Seminary, then transferred to, and graduated from, Faith Theological Seminary. Upon graduation, he answered a call to serve a small Presbyterian congregation in Grove City, PA. Arriving in Grove City in June, by July he had in place and began to implement Dr. Abraham Lance Lathem’s Summer Bible School program. Lathem’s program was intense. It met for five weeks, three hours each morning, was centered on Scripture and Catechism memorization, and had no hand-crafts! In two years time, the congregation grew from 18 to 105 members, largely because of Schaeffer’s emphasis upon ministry to children.
The PCA Historical Center has preserved a portion of a letter from Dr. Schaeffer in which he commends the Summer Bible School program:
Dear Friend in Christ:
For a long time I have been keenly interested in the ALL-BIBLE “SUMMER BIBLE SCHOOL”. Before I had a regular charge that interest was academic–the plan sounded splendid both as a means of Christian instruction and as a Church builder. When we were called to the Covenant Bible Presbyterian Church of Grove City, a Church of 18 active members meeting in the American Legion Hall, we put the plan to the test and found it more powerful than we had even guessed. We arrived in Grove City in June and in July with little other means of contact than door bell pushing, we had our first Summer Bible School. That first year with only 4 children in our Sabbath School, we had 135 children enrolled. The following three years we had Schools all of which had over 170 in them. There is no doubt in my mind that one of the greatest factors which God used in the Building of the Grove City Church to a congregation of 105 members with its own beautiful little building was the All-Bible “Summer Bible School”.
Educationally the school meets many needs. A great many of us long for an educational system that will bring our children to the Lord instead of taking them away. Modern unbelief has gained much of its control through the early planting of many of its men in educational centers. However, the setting up of Christian Schools is difficult and not many of us can achieve it. Never-the-less, in the pedagogically correct and Spirit empowered Summer Bible School course, we have a solution which each of us can effect.
As I have said, I have been impressed with the All-Bible Summer Bible School for a long time, but since I have been called to Chester as Associate Pastor and have gone over the remarkable record of the School in its world-wide scope, I am continually more certain that God has raised up nothing in our age that has surpassed this All-Bible Summer Bible School as a means of evangelization, as a bulwark against unbelief through the careful teaching of the Word of God, and as a builder of Church congregations that mean to stand “all out” for Fundamental, Supernatural Christianity.
The School was founded 30 years ago by Dr. Lathem, and uses No Handcraft; it is the Word of God and the Word of God only. There are records at hand of 100,000 conversions through it, and only God knows how many more have been reached for Christ that are not recorded. Before the Nationalistic blow against Fundamental Christianity in Japan there were 586 Schools in Korea alone. It is my firm conviction that the All-Bible Summer Bible School fills an increasingly important. . .”
[The letter ends there. Perhaps we will one day find the rest of that letter among some other collection.]
Words to Live By: Can there be any more important ministry than in raising up children in the saving grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ as Lord? What a blessing to be able to say that you never knew a time when you did not trust Christ for your salvation. And please don’t think that you have to wait to be able to talk with your children about spiritual matters. Patience and plain, simple language will overcome the barriers and even fairly young children can grasp their sinful condition and their need of Christ as their savior. Communicate the Gospel clearly, plainly, lovingly—not just by your words but especially by your actions—and wait in trusting faith on God’s time to bring about conviction, repentance and faith.
Image Source: The photograph above is from 1944, when Dr. Schaeffer was pastor of the First Bible Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, where ministry to children continued to play an integral part in his overall ministry to the Church. Scan prepared by the staff of the PCA Historical Center.
Our post today comes from guest author Barry Waugh. His blog, Presbyterians of the Past, is well worth your consideration for posts that generally offer greater depth than what we can present here.
Michael Demetrius Kalopothakes was born in Aeropolis, Laconia, Greece, December 17, 1825. At the time of his birth the Greeks were involved in a revolution for independence from the Ottomans who had ruled them since the middle of the fifteenth century. The Greeks’ desire for freedom was encouraged by the successful revolutions in America and France, but uprisings in Greece in the latter years of the eighteenth century failed. However, on March 25, 1821, the revolution that would succeed began. The conflict continued for several years until a settlement was achieved and Greece became an independent state in 1830. Turkey did not recognize Greece’s independence until the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832.
Michael Kalopothakes owed his early education to two Presbyterian in the United States of America, Old School, missionaries. The Reverends George W. Leyburn and Samuel R. Houston were both from Virginia and members of Lexington Presbytery during their terms of service in Greece between 1837 and 1842. After completing studies with his Presbyterian mentors, Michael continued his education for two years in a preparatory school from which he graduated at the age of eighteen. For the next five years he was the headmaster of a school in Gytheion, then he studied in the University of Athens where he completed his education in medicine in 1853. Briefly, he was a surgeon in the Greek Army.
At this point it would be helpful for readers to know a bit about the Greek Orthodox Church, which is one of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. When reports appear on the evening news about events associated with the Orthodox Churches it may appear that their practices are very much like those of Roman Catholicism. Many similarities have their source in the common past that Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism enjoyed until the doctrinal division into two churches in 1054. Points leading to the schism included Rome’s adoption of the doctrine of papal infallibility and its modifications to the creeds with respect to the Trinity in general and the Holy Spirit in particular. Both Rome and the Orthodox hold to an episcopal form of government and have seven sacraments.
The reason Kalopothakes decided to enter the Presbyterian ministry is not known, but the early spiritual influences from his minister-teachers likely seeded his grasp of the Gospel and decision to become a minister. The Orthodox Church was and is the church of Greece, so for Kalopothakes to obtain a Protestant theological education he turned to the United States. He made the long journey to New York to attend Union Theological Seminary where he completed the three-year curriculum in 1856. He was ordained a missionary-evangelist on April 26, 1857 by Hanover Presbytery, New School, Virginia. His studying for the ministry at Union in New York rather than Union in Virginia was because the New School in Virginia often sent its candidates to the New York seminary which was more attuned to New School thinking. Also, while living in New York, Physician Kalopothakes took advantage of other academic opportunities by pursuing additional medical studies.
Returning to his Greek Orthodox homeland, Rev. Kalopothakes modeled his plan for reforming the church after the method Martin Luther used over three-hundred years earlier by making abundant use of the power of print. He hoped his weekly periodical Star of the East would raise issues for reforming the Greek Orthodox Church much as Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses and tracts were intended to do in the sixteenth century. Kalopothakes ended up setting up his own press to print Starbecause none of the printers in Athens were interested in running off the controversial newspaper because it challenged the theology of the Greek Orthodox Church.
A result of Kalopothakes publishing work was persecution and ostracization by his fellow citizens who saw their government and church as inseparable. The Greeks believed the Orthodox Church to be an aspect of their ethnicity; if one was Greek, then one was Greek Orthodox. The Orthodox Church united them religiously as they opposed Islam for nearly 400 years during Ottoman rule. Even the national constitution in its current edition begins its preamble saying, “In the Name of the Holy and Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity,” with a similar statement in the provisional constitution of 1822. For citizens of the United States whose preamble says nothing about Christianity, the idea of a theological affirmation in the Greek constitution preamble may seem surprising. When Kalopothakes began his reforming and church planting work in Greece he was seen as challenging not only Greek Orthodoxy but also the nation’s government and the Greek ethnic identity. He commented on his difficulties presenting Protestant-based-Gospel ideas to his fellow citizens.
A prevailing idea is that for a Greek to differ openly from the Greek Orthodox Church in his belief and practice, amounts to renouncing his allegiance to his country and becoming a renegade in all senses of the word. This conviction has made the position of those who had the courage of their convictions no easy one, and not infrequently life and property have been endangered by attacks.
In the early years of our work we were subjected to every variety of persecution. Our names were a byword and reproach, in the daily press we were loaded with every term of abuse and opprobrium; when we walked the streets, we were hooted and followed, and even our dwellings were not always safe from violence. Many has been the time when our services were disturbed or broken up by roughians or fanatics, and nearly all our places of worship have been the object of mob attack.
However, despite the uphill battle, Kalopothakes tackled his next task for reform which was, like Luther, providing the Scriptures in the common language of the people. In Livadia, which is about sixty-five miles northwest of Athens, he was attempting to distribute Greek Bibles and was nearly killed by stoning. The mayor, who was a friend of his, managed to help him escape from the angry crowd. The British and Foreign Bible Society supported Kalopothakes’s ministry from 1859 to 1904 and through his efforts thousands of Bibles were distributed despite opposition. The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions believed the conditions for continued ministry in Greece were so hostile that it withdrew its support of Kalopothakes, then in 1886 the PCUS ceased its work in Greece. With much of his foreign support no longer available and what connectional relationship his work had with the PCUS officially lost, the Evangelical Greek Synod was established the same year through Kalopothakes’s efforts and the church he pastored was in Athens.
Not only did Kalopothakes publish Star of the East and provide Greek vernacular Bibles, but he also published tracts and reprints of books with the help of funding from the Religious Tract Society of London. Despite failure trying to establish a Sunday School due to Greek laws regarding proselytizing he published a paper for children titled, The Child’s Paper.
When Rev. Kalopothakes retired in 1904 he continued to live in Athens and preach as he was able. T. Verner Moore (1856-1926), who was at the time a professor in San Francisco Theological Seminary, was visiting Kalopothakes when he preached his last sermon and when he passed away January 29, 1911. Moore delivered the sermon for the funeral. In addition to his considerable work publishing and planting churches, Kalopothakes helped to educate over fifty young men and saw eleven ordained to the ministry. At the time of his death after forty-five years of ministry, the Evangelical Greek Synod had six churches with just over 150 members.
Information regarding the wife of Rev. Kalopothakes is conflicting. According to Scott’s Ministerial Directory he married Margaret Kyle in Athens, January 31, 1877, but the obituary, “Death of Mrs. Kalopothakes,” in The Missionary, August 1897, says his wife was the daughter of Capt. Francis Blackler of Marblehead, Massachusetts, whose name was Martha Hooper and she married Kalopothakes in 1858. If he married Martha in 1858 and she died in 1897 then he could not have married Margaret Kyle in 1877. Martha’s obituary adds that she was buried in the Protestant cemetery in Athens near her three children who “were taken from her in early life.”
The following is an excerpt from Pastor Kalopothakes’s address to the Sixth General Evangelical Alliance when it met in New York in 1873. It well summarizes the thinking of his countrymen regarding Christianity.
In reference to the state of religion in Greece, I say what my brother from Italy has said, viz., that it is very low, even among the best of its adherents; and that the Evangelicals have to contend not only against error, ignorance, and infidelity, as is the case in other nominally Christian lands, but also against a greater obstacle—the strong feeling of union of church and nationality…
Even though it might be thought that the influence of one’s ethnicity, national allegiance, or locally accepted views regarding the church and its theology are issues only in foreign lands, Rev. Kalopothakes’s observations about Greece in his day should give American readers pause to reflect upon their own thinking and how it may be negatively influenced by such factors. It is very easy to go with what exists, with what is accepted, but what exists is not necessarily right and it should be continually examined via the mirror of the Word for prejudicial factors such as those mentioned by Michael Kalopothakes.
Notes—When the PCUSA divided into the Old School and New School in 1837, East Hanover Presbytery continued as the Old School presbytery while Hanover Presbytery became the presbytery of the New School. T. Verner Moore (1856-1926) was the son of T. V. Moore (1818-1871). A PDF copy of the issue of The Missionary that includes the obituary for Mrs. Kalopothakes as well as a report on Rev. Kalopothakes’s ministry in Greece was kindly provided by Director Wayne Sparkman of the PCA Historical Center in St. Louis, Missouri.
Sources include the series of three articles published by T. Verner Moore (1856-1926) in Record of Christian Work, vol. 33, 1914, which was edited by W. R. Moody and published in East Northfield, Massachusetts, with the series titled, “The Gospel in Greece, and Kalopothakes, Its Modern Apostle,” pages 18-23, 87-90, and 151-155; the two-paragraph quote from Kalopothakes is on page 152. Virginia Presbyterians in American Life: Hanover Presbytery (1755-1980), edited by Patricia Aldridge and authored by R. P. Davis, James H. Smylie, Dean K. Thompson, E. T. Thompson, and William N. Todd, Richmond: Hanover Presbytery, 1982, provided information regarding the names of presbyteries and the Old School-New School division within the presbytery, and Harold M. Parker Jr.’s The United Synod of the South: The Southern Presbyterian New School Presbyterian Church, New York: Greenwood Press, 1988, provided assistance with related subjects. “Religious Movements Among the Greeks of Macedonia,” The Christian World Magazine of the American and Foreign Christian Union, Vol. XII, No. 4, April 1861, New York, pages 106-108. Kalopothakes wrote, “Religion in Greece,” in History, Essays, and other Documents of the Sixth General Conference of the Evangelical Alliance, held in New York, October 2-12, 1873, edited by Philip Schaff and S. Irenaeus Prime, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1874.
A. — The second commandment is, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. (Exod.20:4-6)
Q. 50. — What is required in the second commandment?
A. — The second commandment requireth the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God hath appointed in his word.
1. Both the first and second commandments have to do with worship. In what way do they differ?
The first commandment has to do with the object of worship, the true and living God; the second commandment has to do with the means of worship, and the manner in which we worship Him.
2. What are these means of worship?
The means of worship are the ordinances which God has appointed in His word.
3. What are these ordinances?
The Larger Catechism lists these as “prayer and thanksgiving in the name of Christ; the reading, preaching, and hearing of the word, the administration and receiving of the sacraments; church government and discipline; the ministry and maintenance thereof; religious fasting; swearing by the name of God, and vowing to Him.” (Q. 108)
4. How are we as Christians to receive these ordinances?
We are to receive them by approving them and embracing them; observing them by doing what is required in them; keeping them pure and entire by keeping them from corruption.
5. What does it mean by not making any graven image?
It means that we are not to attempt to represent God through material objects nor to worship Him through the use of such imagery.
THE JEALOUS GOD
” … for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.” (Exodus 20:5). The word Jealous has changed in meaning somewhat since it was written. For the original word meant “zealous” and signified “righteous zeal.” It is the teaching that He alone has a claim upon the love of His people.
There are really two senses in which this description of God can be taken. In a good sense He is zealous for His people. He will watch over them, He will protect them, He will defend them against all enemies. His people, who are His through faith in Jesus Christ, are very dear to His heart. As He looks down on His people, sees them in their attempts to walk with Him day by day, He has a tender feeling toward them. He does so want them to get into the stride of walking with Him, never running ahead nor behind, taking each step with a moment by moment knowledge that they are kept in His love. Whatever happens to His people happens to Him, He feels it, has a true feeling of empathy for His children.
There is another sense in which this can be taken. In this sense God is jealous for His people. He is jealous in that He does not want them to worship graven images, or worship false gods, or scurry after those things that would draw them from Himself. It is as if He cannot bear to have a rival in any way. He does not want His children to follow after anything-good or bad-that would hinder their worship of Him. Our love, our highest adoration must be given to Him only.
Daily we need to examine ourselves to see whether or not w. are following hard after Him. There are so many ways that our love can be drawn away. It is good for us to remind ourselves time and time again that He is a jealous God and keep ourselves free from entanglements. We should never give Him cause to be jealous. We should be praying, moment by moment, that He will keep us so close to Him that we will sense the very second our love for Him is being cooled by things contrary to His will for us. If we will but do this He will be jealous of us instead of jealous for us. And then blessings will flow from Him to us, all to His glory.
Published By: The SHIELD and SWORD, INC.
Vo!. 4 NO.47 (November 1964)
Rev. Leonard T. Van Horn, Editor
Alexander Peden was born sometime during the year 1626 in Scotland. His father was a small business man who left him a small inheritance. He could have entered into any of the social positions in the area, but a call from God came to him early to seek the proclaim the good news of everlasting life to his neighbors. Graduating from the University of Glasglow, he was ordained and became the pastor of New Luce, in Galloway, in his native Scotland. It was here that his congregation discovered that Pastor Peden was more than an ordinary man.
Let Rev. J.M. Dryerre sum it up for us. He writes, “his prayers were conversations with a personal friend. His sermons were visions of the glory of God which had come to him in his meditations, and filled his people with awe. His talk was about God and His will in regard to downtrodden Scotland. Tall in stature and well-built, he proclaimed his message from God.” (Heroes and Heroines of the Scottish Covenanters, Rev. J.M. Dryerre, Religious Tract and Book Society of Scotland, 1907, p. 100)
But these were times in the kingdom which were not easy for anyone to bear. The infamous ejection of ministers from their pulpits by the Crown included the removal of Pastor Peden from his pulpit after his first three years. With great sorrow, he left the people he loved to begin a ministry in the fields and pastures of the countryside. Under an indictment from the king of England for that, he made many marvelous escapes from the soldiers, sleeping in caves and barns.
Once when a group of soldiers appeared at one of the country spots where he was proclaiming the Word, he began to pray. His prayer went something like this: “Lord, we are ever needing at Thy hand, and if we had not Thy command to call upon Thee in the day of trouble, and Thy promise of answering us in the day of our distress, we know not what would become of us. If Thou hast any more work for us in Thy world, twine them about the hill, Lord, and cast the lap of Thy cloak over poor old Sandy (himself, he meant) and these people, and we will keep it in remembrance and tell it to the commendation of Thy goodness, pity, and compassion, what Thou didst for us at such a time.” It was said that a dense white cloud of mist appeared, enveloping the troop of soldiers and the worshiping Covenanters alike. The latter was able to escape through the midst, with the soldiers not able to advance to find the Covenanters.
Later, Alexander Peden was captured, tried, and cast into the infamous Bass prison where he suffered greatly for several years. Removed from there, he was placed in the hold of a ship with sixty other Covenanters to be sold as slaves to owners in the American colonies. However, when the ship’s captain found out the reason for their captivity, he released them all. Peden went back to his Scottish home, and spent the last years of his life among his friends, spending days and nights in a nearby cave when the soldiers came too close. He died on January 26, 1686.
In a final act of atrocity, the authorities dug up his body and hung it on a tree. After that symbolic act, they buried him at the base of the tree on which his body had hung, thinking that it would become a tree of shame to his memory. But the Sovereign God overruled their evil intentions. Even though there was a graveyard around the local church, his friends would bring their loved ones to be buried at the foot of the hanging tree. It became the resting place of countless of the people of God to whom he had ministered during his life.
Words to Live By: To some faithful servants of the King of kings, they are set apart to serve their Lord and Master in the great halls of learning and wide open fields of opportunity in this world. Others, though equally called by the same Spirit of God, are set to minister in obscure places of ministry. In both cases, we are to be faithful to minister in large or small opportunities. The former is not to belittle those in the latter callings, but each should serve faithfully according to the Lord’s calling. Support the work of Christ by your spiritual gifts and prayers, dear reader.
From the Writings of Alexander Peden:— The following is something of a curious piece, some might even say a bit controversial given the way it is phrased, as if written from the perspective of the Trinity. I would understand this short article as a teaching tool, explaining the nature and content of what theologians term the “covenant of redemption,” which is the covenant between the Persons of the Trinity, designed to effect our salvation:—
THE COVENANT OF REDEMPTION Be it known to all men, that, in the presence of the Ancient of Days, it was finally contracted, and unanimously agreed, betwixt these honourable and royal persons in the God-head, to wit, the great and infinite Lord of Heaven and earth, on the one side; and Jesus Christ, God-man, his eternal and undoubted heir, on the other side, in manner, form and effect, as follows; That forasmuch as the Lord Jesus Christ is content and obliges himself to become surety, and to fulfil the whole law; and that he shall suffer and become an offering for sin, and take the guiding of all the children of God on him, and make them perfect in every good word and work; and that of his fulness they shall all receive grace for grace; and also present them, man, wife and bairns [i.e., children], on Heaven’s floor, and lose none of them; and that he shall raise them up at the last day, and come in on Heaven’s floor with all the bairns at his back: therefore, the noble Lord of Heaven and earth, on the other side, binds and obliges himself to Christ, to send all the Elect into the world, and to deliver them all fairly to Christ; and also to give him a body, flesh of their flesh and bone of their bone; and to carry Christ through in all his undertaking in that work, and to hold him by the hand; and also, let the Holy Ghost, who is our equal, go forth into the world, that he may be sharer in this great work, and also of the glory of this noble contrivance; and let him enlighten the minds of all those whom we have chosen out of the world, in the knowledge of our name; and to convince them of their lost state; and perswade and enable them to embrace and accept of his free love offer; and to support and comfort them in all their trials and tribulations, especially these for our name’s sake; and to sanctify them, soul and body, and make them fit for serving us, and dwelling with us, and singing forth the praises of the riches of our free grace in this noble contrivance, for ever and ever. Likewise the same noble Lord of Heaven and earth doth fully covenant grace and glory, and all good things, to as many as shall be perswaded and enabled to accept and embrace you, as their Lord, King and God; and moreover, he allows the said Jesus Christ to make proclamations by his servants, to the world in his name, that all that will come and engage under his colors, he shall give them noble pay in hand for the present, and a rich inheritance for ever; with certification, that all those who will not accept of this offer, for the same cause, shall be guilty and eternally condemned from our presence, and tormented with these devils, whom we cast out from us, for their pride and rebellion, for the glory of our justice, through eternity.
In testimony whereof, he subscribes thir presents, and is content the same be registrate in the Books of Holy Scripture, to be kept on record to future generations. Dated at the throne of Heaven, in the ancient records of eternity.
[excerpted from Six Saints of the Covenant: Peden, Semple, Welwood, Cameron, Cargill, and Smith, by Patrick Walker. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1901, pp. 114-115.]
The following brief account concerns the small controversy over the ecclesiastical views of Jonathan Edwards. There is a separate account, to the same conclusion, originally told by Dr. Archibald Alexander and then related by the Rev. R. J. Breckinridge on the pages of the Philadelphia magazine, The Presbyterian. [perhaps I can retrieve that article soon]. But […]
Dr. David Calhoun just a few years ago published a volume on the life and ministry of the Rev. Dr. William Childs Robinson, the Columbia Seminary professor who was such a powerful influence in the lives of many of the founding fathers of the PCA. [Pleading for a Reformation Vision. Banner of Truth, 2013]. Let’s let […]
The Westminster Standards are the Standards of the Presbyterian Church We have already considered the meeting which took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania which stopped an impending schism in the infant Presbyterian Church by The Adopting Act of 1729, as was presented on September 17. But there was another important commitment made by the infant church as part of this multi-day […]
It was yesterday actually—September 17th, 1936—and not today’s date of September 18th, when Dr. J. Gresham Machen spoke in Westfield, New Jersey on the subject “Shall We Obey God, or Man?”. But as we didn’t want to pass up mention of this occasion, so you will please forgive a bit of backtracking. This appears to be one […]
A Potential Schism Halted by a Compromise Initially there was no real problem with the written standards for the Presbyterian Church in America. Ministerial students were simply tested for their learning and soundness in the faith. But a controversy in the mother country soon changed this. So the question arose, should teaching and ruling elders be […]
Excerpted from Volume III of The Presbyterian Magazine, September 1853, pp. 413-415.This recounting of the venerable Dr. Alexander’s farewell to his congregation bears the following footnote: THE PRESBYTERIAN says, that “A valued friend recently discovered in the possession of one of the Pine Street parishoners of Dr. Archibald Alexander, a manuscript copy of the remarks made […]
This is the concluding article in the series PRESBYTERIANS IN AMERICA. The author, Rev. Prof. Paul Woolley, was formerly the professor of Church History at Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia. I do hope you have found Rev. Woolley’s articles both interesting and instructive, and I do trust that our readers are more familiar now than […]
Dr. Paul Woolley’s series of articles on Presbyterians in America continues today with a segment on churches of Covenanter ancestry. Please keep in mind that these articles were written in the early 1950s and so much has changed since that time. VI – The Churches of Covenanter Ancestry [Reformed Presbyterian Advocate, 86.3 (March 1952): 25-26] […]
On August 27th, 1820, the Rev. Sylvester Larned appeared for the last time before the congregation of the First Presbyterian Church of New Orleans. He had remained in the city during the summer’s “sickly season.” Death from fever was everywhere, and Rev. Larned has spent those weeks and months ministering to the city’s poor who […]
Dr. Woolley’s series of articles on Presbyterians in America continues today with a focus on the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and the Bible Presbyterian Church. Our Monday and Tuesday posts will conclude this series. Do keep in mind that these articles were written in the early 1950s and so much has changed since that time. V […]