Caspar Wistar Hodge [1830-1891]

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This Day in Presbyterian History: 

The Work of Creation

With nothing of note in Presbyterian circles with which we could identify, the ninth Shorter Catechism question and answer forms a worthy devotional for our readers today on February 27. It reads, “What is the work of creation? A. The work of creation is, God’s making all things of nothing, by the word of his power, in the space of six days, and all very good.”

The Larger Catechism which deals with the same question and answer, is number 15. It adds to the work of creation, the time as indicated by the phrase “in the beginning,” and also makes explicit that it is “the world” which God made. It states the purpose of creative power to be “for himself.”

What is remarkable about both catechetical answers is the Scriptural basis. There is not a phrase given which is not specifically mentioned in Holy Scripture.

Creation is first of all spoken as a divine making all things of nothing. The author of the Book of Hebrews wrote in chapter 12:verse 3 “By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.” (NASV) The creator God did it ex nihilo – out of nothing.

Further, the world was prepared by “the word of his power.” The Psalmist exclaims in Psalm 33:6 – 9 “By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, And by the breadth of His mouth, all their host. He gathers the waters of the sea together as a heap; He lays up the deeps in storehouses. Let all the earth fear the LORD; Let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him, For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.” (NASV) Our God did not need a rabbit or a hat. He simply spoke and it was accomplished. Only faith will allow us to believe this. Only praise will echo forth from our mouths and hearts because of it.

This occurred in “space of six days.” Now mortal man has argued indefinitely whether this has reference to six days of twenty-four hours, or indefinite periods of time in the sense of ages, or simply providing a framework of creation, or describing a beautiful poem of creation. And in so doing, how easy it is to forget in all the spoken and printed words seeking to justify one position or the other, “the manifestation of the glory of His eternal power, wisdom, and goodness.” (WCF 4:1) Readers, we need you and God’s people everywhere, to keep God in the picture, even within this picture of creation.

Finally, it was all “very good.” That was the divine assessment the Creator God made continually in the creation story in Genesis. And how could it be otherwise, when Paul reminds us in Colossians 1:16, “for by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him.” (NASV)

Words to Live By: Through God and for God – that is the slogan worth remembering when we meditate on God’s world.

Through the Scriptures: Numbers 34 – 36

Through the Standards: Misery of sin in the catechisms

WLC 27 “What misery did the fall bring mankind?
A. The fall brought mankind the loss of communion with God, his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath, bond slaves to Satan, and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come.”

WSC 19 “What is the misery of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. All mankind by their fall lost communion with God, are under his wrath and curse, and so made liable to all miseries in this life, to death itself, and to the pains of hell forever.”


This Day in Presbyterian History:   February 21, 1830 marks the birth of Caspar Wistar Hodge, youngest son of Dr. Charles Hodge, named after the eminent physician Caspar Wistar [1761-1818]. Another of Dr. Hodge’s sons, Archibald Alexander Hodge, also taught at Princeton Theological Seminary.  The Rev. Dr. Caspar Wistar Hodge died on 27 September 1891.

The following is excerpted from Francis Landey Patton’s memorial tribute to his close friend and colleague. And not surprisingly, given self-effacing portrait that Patton paints of his friend, we were unable to locate a photograph of C.W. Hodge. If you know of a good portrait photography in the public domain, we would like to know of it.

He was my most intimate friend. I have come to-day to place a wreath of affection upon his grave. My text [“He opened to us the Scriptures.”–Luke 24:32] is taken from the floral tribute which you who were his pupils placed upon his bier. This is your answer to the question, What did he do? It is a sufficient answer. He wrote no books, his voice was seldom heard beyond his native town, he took no active part in public affairs, and he shrank from the public gaze; but he opened to us the Scriptures. To more than thirty classes he unfolded the truths of the New Testament. He led them reverently over the ground that had been hallowed by the Saviour’s feet, and traced the history of the Apostolic Church from Peter on the day of Pentecost to John in Patmos. Year by year he sent his pupils forth into the world laden with material for use in the service of the gospel, filled with quickening thoughts, and ready to testify that the reverent spirit can handle the subtle questions of criticism without suggesting doubt or lessening zeal.

Dr. Caspar Wistar Hodge was born in Princeton, 21 February 1830. He grew up in Princeton; and, with the exception of the short period covered by his two pastorates, he spent his life there. We can see, then, why he loved Princeton. Others love it; even those who have spent only three or four years of academic residence here speak of it in enthusiastic terms. We who have come here to live, and who expect to die here, love it with an affection that grows deeper even if it grows sadder every year. But we are only adopted children after all. We love sometimes with a divided heart. It was not so with Dr. Hodge. He loved it as one loves the home of his childhood. He loved it with an unfaltering and an unwandering affection. Its rough streets and crooked lanes and weather-beaten houses had tender associations for him. The bridge we crossed and the brook we would sometimes pensively look into in our summer rambles would often suggest an anecdote that showed how the neighborhood was haunted by the ghosts of memory.

Besides, the theology of this seminary was to him a precious heritage. He was in intellectual sympathy with it to be sure; but his hereditary relations to Princeton theology gave an emotional warmth to his convictions. He believed that Princeton had performed a mission in the past, and he believed that in the maintenance of the same truth she had a mission just as great to perform to-day.

He had no love for novelties; and he regarded all schemes that fettered the individual conscience by man-made regulations as new modes of returning unto the weak and beggarly elements, where unto so many still love to be in bondage. . .

. . . The worst heresy is a half-truth, because it is so hard to deal with it. There are so many reasons that can be given for this bad influence in the class-room. Men are ambitious and seek notoriety. They love to be thought original, and they step out of the beaten path. Men raise the cry of progress, and think what is new is an improvement. Men find themselves in unstable equilibrium between the old and the new modes of thinking, and they adopt a paradoxical and inconsistent style of utterance. They try to pour the new wine into the old bottles. They teach orthodoxy with the voice, and suggest heresy with a shrug of the shoulders. But there was nothing of all this in Dr. Hodge. He was a reverent believer in the Bible as the Word of God, and in the doctrines of the Bible as they are formulated in the creed of his church. He was honest, fair-minded, and firm. When he saw difficulties and it was necessary, he held his judgment in suspense. He knew the resources of the enemy, and did not underrate them. But he also knew the argumentative resources of Christianity. The consequence was that his lectures strengthened faith and deepened conviction; and men who had no great critical sagacity themselves felt that they had been reinforced immensely by the fact that they had a man of Dr. Hodge’s scholarship and judgment on the side of the theology of the catechism.

Words to Live By:  It is often true that some of the greatest and most abiding work in God’s kingdom is accomplished by dear saints whose names you may never know, those men and women who work faithfully in the work that God gives them, yet without drawing attention to themselves. Do your work faithfully, as unto the Lord, for this is His calling and purpose for your life. And if God should later bring you into wider fields of service and usefulness in His kingdom, then praise Him for that as well.

Through the Scriptures:Numbers 15 – 17

Through the Standards: Sinfulness of sin in the catechisms

WLC 22 — “Did all mankind fall in that first transgression?
A. The covenant being made with Adam as a public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression.”

WSC 16 — “Did all mankind fall in Adam’s first transgression?
A. The covenant being made with Adam, not only for himself, but for his posterity; all mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him, in his first transgression.”

Text source : Patton, Francis L., Caspar Wistar Hodge : A Memorial Address. New York: Anson D.F. Randolph and Co., 1891.